The Tradition of Mongolian Wrestling: Bökh, Culture, and History

men in traditional costumes wrestling in field

Preserving the Warrior Spirit: The Fascinating World of Mongolian Wrestling


Mongolia, a land of vast steppes, nomadic traditions, and a resilient spirit, has given birth to a unique form of wrestling known as Bökh. This traditional wrestling style is deeply intertwined with Mongolian culture, history, and identity. Bökh, which means “firmness, reliability, vitality, wrestler,” reflects the enduring spirit of the Mongolian people. In this article, we delve into the fascinating world of Mongolian wrestling, exploring its origins, significance, and the cultural phenomena that surround it.

Origins and Etymology

The roots of Bökh trace back to the heart of Mongolian heritage. The term “Bökh” itself is derived from the Mongolic root *bekü, which signifies qualities like firmness, hardness, and strength. It is worth noting that there is a possibility that this term has Turkic origins, specifically from *böke, meaning “warrior” or even “big snake.” Regardless of its etymology, Bökh embodies the very essence of Mongolian wrestling – strength, tenacity, and the warrior spirit.

old oriental buildings of erdene zuu monastery in mongolia
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A Pillar of Mongolian Culture

Wrestling, along with horsemanship and archery, forms the historic triumvirate of the “Three Manly Skills” deeply ingrained in Mongolian culture. Genghis Khan, the legendary founder of the Mongol Empire, recognized the importance of wrestling as a means to keep his army in peak physical condition and battle-ready. Under his reign, wrestling became not only a sport but also a vital component of military training.


During the Qing dynasty, which spanned from 1646 to 1911, wrestling events were a regular occurrence, often pitting ethnic Manchu wrestlers against their Mongol counterparts. These contests served as a testament to the enduring popularity and cultural significance of Mongolian wrestling.

The Global Appeal of Mongolian Wrestling

Mongolian wrestling is not confined within the borders of Mongolia. Instead, it has become a cultural phenomenon cherished by Mongols worldwide. It serves as a symbol of their heritage and a source of national pride. When a male child is born in a Mongolian family, there is a collective hope that he will one day become a wrestler, carrying forward the legacy of Bökh.

Competitions and Festivals

Mongolian wrestling competitions are held regularly in various regions, including Mongolia, western and southeastern Russia, and northern China. However, the grandest of them all is the National Naadam festival, an event of unparalleled significance in Mongolian culture.

The Grandeur of National Naadam

In Mongolia, the Naadam, or “Game” in English, takes place in July each year. Among the various competitions held during Naadam, the wrestling competition stands out as the most prestigious and eagerly anticipated event. The epicenter of this wrestling extravaganza is Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, where the largest number of wrestlers congregate to showcase their skill and strength.


National Naadam is a spectacle like no other, with live radio and television broadcasts beaming the action to every corner of the country. The festival is a celebration of Mongolia’s identity and pride, where wrestlers embody the spirit of Bökh, and the nation unites in admiration.

The Three Classes of Naadam


Naadam is divided into three classes based on the Mongolian administrative divisions, emphasizing the diverse representation and inclusivity of this remarkable event. Each class features its own set of competitions, and wrestlers from different regions come together to compete.

The three classes are:

  1. Ulaanbaatar Naadam: This class represents the capital city and features wrestlers from Ulaanbaatar and its surrounding areas. Wrestlers competing in this class often have a strong urban background and receive considerable attention and support.
  2. Aimag (Province) Naadam: Aimag Naadam encompasses the provincial level, with participants hailing from the various provinces of Mongolia. These wrestlers represent the diversity of Mongolia’s landscape and cultures, making this class particularly intriguing.
  3. Sum (District) Naadam: Sum Naadam is the most grassroots level of the competition, involving wrestlers from the smallest administrative units, the sums. Wrestlers from remote areas and pastoral communities often find their way to the Sum Naadam, showcasing their determination and passion for the sport.

Training and Preparation

The journey to becoming a Bökh wrestler is arduous and requires unwavering dedication. Aspiring wrestlers start their training at a young age, often in their childhood. They endure rigorous physical conditioning, including strength training, endurance exercises, and hours of practice on the wrestling mat. The training regimen is not only about physical strength but also about developing mental fortitude and discipline.

Wrestlers also adhere to a strict diet to maintain their physique, typically consuming a diet rich in meat, dairy products, and other high-protein foods. This diet not only fuels their bodies but also aligns with the nomadic traditions of the Mongolian people.

men in traditional costumes wrestling in field
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The Art of Bökh Wrestling


Bökh wrestling is distinct in its rules and techniques. One of the most distinguishing characteristics is that anything other than a foot touching the ground results in an immediate loss for the wrestler. This unique rule requires wrestlers to develop a lower center of gravity, exceptional balance, and the ability to execute intricate throws and takedowns.

Wrestlers wear a tight-fitting, open-front jacket called a “zodog,” which provides a grip for their opponents. The zodog, coupled with the tight grip on the opponent’s waistband, allows for various techniques and maneuvers.

A typical Bökh match is a captivating spectacle of skill and strength, with wrestlers displaying an array of throws and holds in their quest for victory. The ultimate goal is to force the opponent to touch the ground with anything other than their feet, which often involves lifting, twisting, and grappling with remarkable agility.

The Role of Tradition and Ritual

Mongolian wrestling is not merely a physical contest; it is a deeply spiritual and ritualistic experience. Before each match, wrestlers engage in a series of ceremonial movements and gestures, paying homage to their ancestors and the sport’s traditions. These rituals emphasize the spiritual connection between the wrestlers, their heritage, and the land they call home.

One of the most iconic rituals is the “Eagle Dance” or “Garuda Dance,” where wrestlers imitate the graceful movements of an eagle. This dance symbolizes the strength, agility, and freedom that an eagle embodies, qualities that wrestlers aspire to possess.

The Symbolism of Victory

Victory in Bökh wrestling is a moment of profound significance. It represents not only personal achievement but also the triumph of one’s lineage and community. The victorious wrestler is celebrated as a hero, showered with accolades, and often carried on the shoulders of the crowd in a joyous procession.

The Enduring Legacy of Mongolian Wrestling


Mongolian wrestling, with its rich history, cultural significance, and global appeal, continues to be an integral part of the Mongolian identity. It serves as a reminder of the nomadic heritage and warrior spirit that has defined the Mongol people for centuries.

In a world that constantly evolves, Mongolian wrestling stands as a testament to the enduring power of tradition and the indomitable spirit of a people who have made the steppes of Mongolia their home. As long as there are wrestlers donning

the zodog and engaging in the age-old struggle of Bökh, the tradition will live on, inspiring generations to come with its unwavering firmness, reliability, and vitality.

Mongolian wrestling, with its historical roots, cultural significance, and global reach, remains a captivating and enduring aspect of Mongolian identity. The tradition of Bökh, with its unique rules and rituals, continues to unite communities, instill discipline, and showcase the physical and mental prowess of its practitioners. National Naadam, as the grandest stage for this ancient sport, serves as a powerful reminder of Mongolia’s proud heritage and its commitment to preserving its traditions for future generations.